2. Purpose and Intent
- To set forth the goals and objectives to be achieved through this
- Key Issues:
- Protection of public health, welfare, and safety
- Protection of groundwater resources from contamination
- Protection of groundwater resources from excessive extraction
- Management of land-use activities that store, handle, or produce
- Encouragement of the use of best management practices (regulatory and
- Protection of future groundwater sources of drinking water
- Recognition of local government responsibility in protection
- Encouragement for municipalities to work with neighboring communities
for adequate protection of resource areas extending into other
- In addition to stating public health, welfare, and safety concerns,
include any special circumstances that are of particular importance to
the community (e.g., the well or wellfield being the only source of
public drinking water for the community?. The goals and objectives
should be clearly stated and quantifiable, if possible. It is
also necessary to make it clear if the ordinance applies to both
public and private wells.
- The purpose of the Wellhead Protection Ordinance is to protect
the public, municipal water supply for the town of Norway from
land uses which pose a threat to the quality and quantity of
the groundwater being extracted from the Norway municipal well(s).
[Town of Norway, Maine, Wellhead Protection Management Plan,
Provide separate purpose and intent statements for the resource or
protection areas being addressed in the ordinance, such as the immediate
area surrounding wells, or wellfields and the recharge area (or zone of
influence) if there are separate zoning district for each zone. For
example, the City of Dayton, Ohio, has one zoning district (Well Head
Operation District) for the actual location of wellfields, and an
overlay zoning district (Well Field Protection Overlay District) for the
- The WO Well Head Operation District is designed to safeguard the
public health, safety, and welfare of citizens and institutions
that are customers of the Dayton Water system by regulating the
land use and the storage, handling, use and/or production of
Regulated Substances within the zone of influence. The intent of
this designation is to protect the community's potable water
supply against contamination. This district will be mapped on
property owned by the city at the location of any presently
city-owned and operated or designated future or proposed public
water supply well, recharge lagoon, or other related water facility
as part of the Cit of Dayton Master Plan for Water supply and
[City of Dayton, Ohio, zoning Ordinance, Section 150.600, 1988]
The WP Well field Protection Overlay District is designed to
safeguard the public health, safety, and welfare of citizens and
institutions that are customers of the Dayton Water system by
regulating the land use and the storage, handling, use, and/or
production of Regulated substances within the zone described as the
land area adjacent to the existing and proposed municipal water
wellfields, within the city, not included within the WQ Well Field
Operation District, which lies within the one(1) year capture area,
including a one thousand (1,000) foot strip of land outside of the
direct recharge area in locations where the direct recharge area
within the one(1) year capture area impinges on the aquifer
boundary. The intent of this designation is to protect the
community's potable water supply against contamination.
[City of Dayton, Ohio, zoning Ordinance, Section 150.610, 1988]
If there are other natural resources and geologic features (e.g. a
carbonate geologic formation, lakes, and lake watershed that discharge to
groundwater) that merit protection, identify them in this part of the
ordinance when defining intent. Similarly, include any known threats and
constraints, such as conditions inhibiting recharge capacity, land
subsidence, and sinkholes.
If the aquifer or groundwater is not the only (sole ) source of water
supply, but a significant source of supply of the community's water needs,
indicate that fact in the statement of intent.
- In addition to the general goals listed in the statements of
Purpose and Community Development Objectives, it is the purpose of
this Article to protect a uniquely sensitive and valuable
groundwater resource area, defined by a carbonate geologic
formation identified in the East Marlborough township
Comprehensive Plan, against land development patterns that would
deplete the groundwater supply through excess demand, threaten its
quality through wastewater pollution, inhibit the recharge
capability of the area through exorbitant impervious surface
areas, and increase the dangers of land subsidence and sinkholes.
The GP, Groundwater Protection District, shall be deemed an
overlay on the application zoning district, and shall be shown on
the East Marlborough Township Groundwater Protection Overlay
Map. In the GP Overlay District, the following regulation shall
apply, unless superseded by a more stringent regulation of the
base zoning district.
[City of East Marlborough Township, Pennsylvania, Zoning
Ordinance, Section 1201A, 1979]
(Note that a federal provision contained in the Safe Drinking Water Act
provides for Sole source Aquifer (SSA) designation if at least 50 percent
of the water delivered to the service area is dependent on reserves drawn
from the SSA, provided there are no other alternative viable water sources
that could supply at least 50 percent of the required water to be
delivered to the service area. To qualify for such a designation and
protection under the act, a community must petition EPA and meet the
requirements of the Sole Source Aquifer Program. The designation permits
EPA to conduct a limited review of federal financially assisted projects
to determine their potential contamination threat.)
Promote the idea of shared responsibility for groundwater protection
between the business and commercial uses, residential needs, and local
government authority. And seek regulatory and nonregulatory approaches
to groundwater resource protection.
- The purpose of this regulation is to safeguard public health
by reducing risks of contamination of public water supply in the
Town of Cheshire. Over 80 percent of Cheshire residents are served
by public water supply wells which draw upon stratified drift
aquifers that lie within the town boundaries, and the other 20
percent rely on private wells. In recognition of the fact that
these aquifers are vulnerable to contamination from land-use
activities, and that protection of Cheshire's groundwater
resources is vial to ensure an adequate supply of safe, potable
water, this section establishes Aquifer Protection Zones and
prescribes land-use regulation within the zones.
[Town of Cheshire, Connecticut, zoning Ordinance, Section 47.1,
The Brookings County Planning Commission and Board of County
Commissioners recognize (1) that resident of Brookings county
rely exclusively on groundwater for a safe drinking water supply
and (2) that certain land uses in Brookings County can contaminate
groundwater, particularly in shallow/surficial aquifers.
The purpose of the Aquifer Protection Overlay District is to
protect public health and safety by minimizing contamination of
the shallow/surficial aquifers of Brookings county. It is the
intent to accomplish this, as much as possible, by public education
and securing public cooperation.
Appropriate land-use regulations will be imposed, however, which
are in addition to these imposed in the underlying zoning districts
or in other county regulations. It is not the intent to
grandfather in existing land uses which pose a serious threat to
public health through potential contamination of public water
supply wellhead areas.
[Brookings County, South Dakota, Zoning Ordinance, Section
This is an example of a detailed description to be used in a statement of
purpose or intent.
- It is the purpose of this ordinance to promote the public
health, safety, and general welfare and to minimize public and
private losses due to contamination of the public water supply, to
maximize groundwater protection pollution abatement control
procedures, and minimize land-use restrictions that:
[City of Rockdale, Texas, General Ordinance, Section 3, 1991]
- Protect human life and health;
- Minimize expenditure of public money for costly pollution
- Minimize regulations on land use (for those activities that
are not a threat to public water supplies);
- Minimize business interruptions;
- Minimize damage to public facilities and utilities such
as water mains, sewer lines, and treatment facilities;
- Insure that the public is provided with safe potable water
supply now and for future generation'
- Protect the natural resources of the State.
The intent and purpose of this ordinance is to safeguard the
public health, safety, and welfare of the people of Volusia County,
Florida, by providing for regulation of the storage, handling,
use, or production of hazardous substances within zones of
protection surrounding potable water supply wellfields, thereby
protecting the potable water supply from contamination and other
areas of Volusia County as provided herein.
[Volusia county, Florida, Zoning Ordinance, Section 701.00.
[Thurston County, Washington, Resolution No. H3-90. 1990]
- The aquifer lying under the area described in (the study
of) McAllister aquifer is one of the most important sources
of drinking water in Thurston County. Approximately 47,000
persons in the cities of Olympia and Lacey obtain their drinking
water from springs fed by this aquifer. This aquifer is capable
of providing water to twice these numbers and will be the
major source of drinking water in Thurston county well into the
- This aquifer consists primarily of course sands and gravels, with
approximately five to ten percent less permeable glacial till.
These coarse sands and gravels allow relatively rapid infiltration
and transmission of water and have high percolation rates.
These soils are also generally poor at binding, trapping, and
filtering contaminants. Consequently, they have low potential to
treat and retain pollutants.
Reprinted with permission from A Guide to Wellhead Protection,
PAS Report No. 457/458 (Chicago: American Planning Association,
August 1995), Appendix D.
Wellhead Protection Program Guidance Document Contents
Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality